How to write an abstract for the dissertation?

The abstract is an integral part of your dissertation. If you are new to the dissertation writing word, then probably we should start with, what the dissertation abstract is?

Dissertation abstract:

A dissertation abstract is the short summary of the overall research and the dissertation. A dissertation abstract is the “gateway” or “filter” for the assessment of the dissertation. It enables the reader to quickly filter the topic of your dissertation and its worth. So do neither overlook the abstract nor treat it as an afterthought.

How long the dissertation abstract should be?

There is no rule of thumb for deciding the length of the abstract. It depends on the format you are following. It varies not only with the nature of the subject but also with the scope or extent of the research too. However, on a general note, the abstract can maximum be of 300 words.

Where the dissertation abstract appears in the dissertation?

The abstract is written in the start, after writing the acknowledgments but before the table of contents and list of figures and tables. Although this section appears in the start it is usually written in the very last. When you are done with writing all the rest of the dissertation.

What is the purpose of the dissertation abstract?

The purpose of the dissertation abstract is to write the aims, objectives, dissertation methodology and the outcomes of the result. Remember one thing while writing the dissertation abstract that it should be understandable at its very own. Self-standing is the most important parameter for judging the credibility of the dissertation abstract. Obviously, it is a short guide for the dissertation, anyone who will be seeking help or guidance regarding the dissertation subject, then he will not be going through the whole dissertation. So keep your dissertation abstract so comprehensive, that anyone can get an idea about your dissertation through reading the abstract.

When to write the dissertation abstract?

Although it is going to be the first writable and notable section in the dissertation you will be going to write it in the last. The reason behind is that when you will be done with the first draft of your dissertation, then you could critically analyze your research. When all the aspects of the dissertation along with their outcomes will be in front of you, then you can filter well which information needs to be there in the abstract section. so it is always a good approach to write it in the end.

A step-wise guide for writing the dissertation abstract according to APA style:

  • Always start the abstract from the new page.
  • Write the abstract in the paragraph form followed by the “Abstract” heading in the center of the page.
  • According to the APA format, the abstract length should range between 150-3250, but this is not standard it can vary depending upon the type of your dissertation.
  • Discuss various sections in the abstract in the same order as they appear in the dissertation. For instance, start with the short description of the introduction, methodology and the conclusion.
  • Use the important keywords meaning the “jargon”, this will not only enable you to reach the word limit but will also help readers to identify whether the dissertation is helpful or not.

What are the components of the dissertation abstract?

Mostly the dissertation abstract has the following four parts.

  • Background of your research
  • Research components
  • Results
  • Conclusions

Note that these all are the main components of the dissertation too. Means that you have to give a review of all these four sections in the same order.

Now seeing the components in detail.

Research background:

In the first two-three lines describe the significance of your research. This is meant for grabbing the attention of the reader. Just explain what is the purpose of the research and what was the motivation behind the selection.

Research components:

Now it is the turn for describing your research components. Since in the abstract you refer to the description of every single thing that made your dissertation significant in any way. So the,

  • Research design
  • Research methodology
  • Analysis technique

Should be discussed in the abstract. Analyze the standing components of each section. use words succinctly to summarize the topic in just two or three lines.

Research results:

Before writing the result, keep it in mind that the result section is distinctly different from the conclusion section. in the abstract discuss that:

  • What are the findings of your dissertation?
  • Are they in accordance with the expectations you initially had from this project?
  • In what ways the dissertation results are significant?

Don’t exaggerate the findings, state them in the simplest possible way so that any reader from any discipline can get the idea of the results.

Research conclusions:

Now in the very last discuss the conclusions and the implications of the result. The key here is the “conciseness” too. You can generalize your finding here in this section and can also discuss the limitations and constraints of your research.

What should you avoid in writing the abstract?

  • The dissertation should not be written in the sense that tells what is found by the dissertation but it should be written in the sense that tells what the dissertation paper will explore.
  • It should not define the specific details of the dissertation findings, rather it should be written in the general form.

What should you consider while writing the abstract?

Although the writing styles differ from paper to paper. However, there are few integral checkpoints for the dissertation abstract writing.

  • Always state the problem statement in the dissertation abstract. This will provide the reader with reference to the query being addressed in the research.
  • Pay a special focus on the design methodology you have used in your project. It should be defined in clear terms.
  • Refer to the data collection method, state the number of subjects that have been used in your research.
  • State the findings of your research straightforwardly.
  • Discuss the future implications of your research too.

For additional help consult the dissertation writing services.

(Also in this section)

Dissertation Introduction Examples Tips

Dissertation Structure

Tips for Writing Dissertation Methodology

How to write dissertation bibliography

How to write a dissertation proposal?

Tips for creating the perfect dissertation title

How To Write A Dissertation

How long the dissertation should be?

Dissertation Introduction Examples Tips

Here is the symmetrical order of the sections in the dissertation format, these sections will appear in the dissertation as:

  • Dissertation abstract
  • Dissertation introduction
  • Dissertation conclusions

But in general this order will not be followed, when you will be writing the dissertation’s first draft. Actually, the reason behind this is that you will write the dissertation sections turn by turn, as soon as you will be done with each section.

The dissertation introduction and dissertation abstract are the first part of the dissertation so it is fair enough to spend a great deal of time on these sections. but hold on for a second. Are you going to start your dissertation from here? No! these might be the sections you will write at the very end.

Mostly it is renowned as a pro tip to write both the dissertation introduction and dissertation abstract at the end of the dissertation. This is due to that by the very end of the research you will be familiar with the pros, cons and almost all the aspects and scope of your research. so when you will introduce your dissertation by keeping all the aspects in mind, then it will give you a sure head start. Research is a process in which the ideas evolve and morph readily. At the very first when you will be proposing the dissertation you must not be aware of all the out comings of the research. So as soon as you will be done with your research, you can introduce, summarize and conclude it very well. This will also help you in limiting the scope of the dissertation. For instance, if your hopes were so high in achieving certain parameters of the research, and due to some factors you fail to achieve all then, you can better limit the scope of your project in the dissertation introduction.

Writing the dissertation introduction at the end also keeps a check that all the aspects which are worth considering are written in the dissertation introduction and dissertation abstract.

This is a time-saving tool too. If you write the dissertation introduction and dissertation abstract first, then you have to go back again to edit or exempt certain details from both the sections. So keep yourself at comfort and avoid this editing and re-editing headaches.

In the following sections, we will be looking in detail about the tips and tricks for writing each of three integral parts. The sections also focus on highlighting some of the most common mistakes made by the students while writing the dissertation introduction, dissertation conclusion, and dissertation abstract.

This article will greatly help in evaluating the mistakes and tips to overcome these mistakes. The article mainly focusses on the three most crucial section of the dissertation listed above. The sequence of the article will be:

  1. Brief introduction of the dissertation introduction, dissertation conclusion and dissertation abstract.
  2. What is the significance of the dissertation introduction, dissertation conclusion and dissertation abstract?
  3. Goals you have to achieve while writing dissertation introduction, dissertation conclusion and dissertation abstract.
  4. How to write the dissertation introduction, dissertation conclusion and dissertation abstract?
  5. Tips and tricks for writing the dissertation introduction, dissertation conclusion and dissertation abstract.

tips writing dissertation introduction

So follow the article for detailed overview of each section.

Dissertation introduction:

Although this part will appear in the start this might be the part you will be writing after completing the whole dissertation. The introduction of the dissertation should encompass the following parameters.

Writing the dissertation introduction is the initial stage of the dissertation process. Dissertation introduction is also given in the dissertation proposal. Although this is not the in-detail overview. In the dissertation proposal, only a brief introduction of the dissertation is given. The main points are discussed only and the expectations from the project research are discussed. The in detail overview of the dissertation introduction is given later.

This is a good approach to write the introduction at the end of the dissertation because, until the end of the dissertation, you must be familiar with all the aspects of the research. The scope of the research is also defined till the end. Thus you can cover and introduce your dissertation well.

This is also a pro tip to write the first draft of the dissertation introduction, redrafting is the technique to ace the introduction. Your thoughts evolve greatly while you draft your dissertation. So keep a track on the evolution of the thoughts and draft the writings continuously.

Basically, in the dissertation introduction, we have to discuss the problem statement along with the overview of the dissertation.

Why is it important to write the dissertation introduction?

Basically, this is a brief recap of the dissertation. You can commercialize your dissertation from its introduction. The credibility of the introduction section determines the success of the whole dissertation. This is the point where you can catch the attention of the reader. This also gives an overview of the whole dissertation. So you can say it like a more detailed version of the abstract. If any researcher wants to proceed with your research, he will check the relevance of your dissertation by the introduction section. a well written “dissertation introduction” determines both the scientific and the practical relevance of the dissertation.

Goals to achieve in the dissertation conclusion section:

Before discussing the actual writing procedure. First, take an overview of all the goals or parameters you are going to achieve in the dissertation introduction.

  • The goals of the dissertation introduction are:
  • It should provide background knowledge of the dissertation. This should be a short review of the literature review you have studied.
  • It should be so well written that it should clarify all the context of the dissertation readily.
  • It should be written in a simple language so that the layman can also get an idea about the dissertation and the research.
  • Only introduce the dissertation by highlighting all the aims and objectives you are going to achieve in the dissertation.

How to write the dissertation introduction?

There is no concrete parameter in which you have to structure your dissertation introduction. You can be a variant with this section. the best approach is to follow the format given by you by your department. The introduction constitutes about 7% of the total dissertation. If we keep the writing process simple then, the introduction is not more than writing the headings and sub-headings of all the dissertation. If you are going to use the particular terminology or more precisely the “jargon” in the introduction, then don’t forget to append the terms in the appendix. The pro tip is to add the value of your research in this section. advocate your stance and choices. Dedicate a separate section for this task and try to convince the reader that your choice is valid.

Some tips for writing the outclass dissertation introduction:

  • The opening sentences should be eye-catching so that your dissertation can capture readers’ attention at the very first place.
  • Don’t make it extensive, by dragging it so long. This will reduce the brevity and will lose the attention of the reader. Obviously, the reader is consulting the introduction section for getting an overall idea of the dissertation in a quick manner. So write the dissertation introduction as the “preface” of the novel. Keep it short but interesting.
  • Don’t compromise on the reliability of the dissertation in wake of making it interesting for the reader. State all the facts as they are. Ensure that every single fact described is 100% authentic.
  • Avoid verbosity in the dissertation. Keep it as simple as you can. The dissertation introduction is the doorway to the dissertation for the reader. To ensure an easy pass from this point.
  • Remember that this is the only introduction of the dissertation. Don’t discuss any outcomes or the result of the dissertation. Just introduce the overall idea of the dissertation.
  • The dissertation introduction is not a one-night job, so don’t leave it as a last minute task. Although you are going it to write it in the last it requires you a lot of time, consideration and effort.

Dissertation conclusion:

Dissertation conclusion is an integral part of the dissertation. The extensive academic writings are always followed by a conclusion section. that readily helps the reader to evaluate the result of the whole research. However, it can be trickier to write a conclusion. You need to be a bit vigilant, for extracting the main concluding points. The conclusion section should stick to the main topic, it should be discussed in the light of the problem statement and should justify the validation of the chosen methods, the dissertation conclusion should be coherent to the above-represented sections and should not get off the tangent.

Why is it important to write the dissertation conclusion section?

Dissertation results are often stated and discussed separately. Dissertation conclusion section is important to discuss all the aspects of the findings. So basically in this section, you are going to compare the actual results of your dissertation research with them, hopes and expectations, you have written in the dissertation introduction section. all the essay type academic writings often end with the “conclusion” section.

Goals to achieve in dissertation conclusion section:

  • Your conclusion should come up to the level that it achieves the following parameters:
  • It should be written in such a way that it acts as the “reminder notes” for each dissertation section.
  • It should incorporate the “recommendation” section. the recommendations emphasize on the practical implications of the dissertation and the research. Furthermore, it can guide the reader about the principles or rules followed while carrying out the dissertations. This increases the validity and reliability of the dissertation. The recommendations in the conclusion help the reader to proceed with the research further.
  • It should open avenues for further research. Due to the ever advancing knowledge, it is really impossible to cover a whole domain in the single dissertation. So it is also a positive gesture to end the dissertation with the question (potentially probable to arise) in the dissertation conclusion section. this will provide an opportunity to other researchers to brainstorm and proceed the further research but keep it in mind the question that has been asked in the dissertation conclusion should not be the “problem statement”.

How to write the dissertation conclusion?

Often the dissertation conclusion section starts with an opening paragraph which describes the summary of the background knowledge. You might think about why it is important?  if anyone familiar with your research methodology wants to see the result acquired through this. He/she will definitely consult the conclusion section only. So it is always a safe play to write an introductory opening paragraph. Thus he/she can build a connection with the previous dissertation.

You can also again throw light on the significance of your research. When you will elaborate on the significance of the dissertation, then you will be eventually heightening its impact. Afterward, the conclusions will be more meaningful for the readers.

As scientific knowledge builds on the previous researches. So “reproducibility” of the dissertation is the key feature among the success parameters. You can make your dissertation reproducible by adding the recommendations for future researches. If the dissertation is practicable for example a business dissertation then it is also a professional gesture to add the practical recommendations, meaning that the practical steps the person has to take in order to implement your research in his/her work.

At last, you can write the concluding paragraph to end the dissertation conclusion section symmetrically.

Some tips for writing the outclass dissertation conclusion:

Following are the top writing tips for acing the dissertation conclusion section:

  • All the dissertation topics may not require the conclusion section. for instance, if your dissertation is analytical then it might get difficult to conclude all the analysis in a separate section. so according to your research topic and according to the dissertation format followed by your department or supervisor decides whether you need a separate conclusion section or not. In some dissertation, formats result section is more descriptive in which all the acquired results are stated, but this is the case where you don’t have the need to further elaborate your results.
  • The conclusion will be almost the last part of the dissertation. So keep it brief don’t drag it much, because till the conclusion section the reader must be familiar with almost all the dissertation problem statement and dissertation methodology. So don’t give unnecessary details just discuss what is important to mention.
  • As stated above the dissertation section should be concise. Brevity is the parameter where the academic results and finding are judged but don’t compromise on the descriptiveness of the concluded results. Mention all the important stuff.
  • Don’t inculcate new points and concepts in the conclusion section. keep it in mind that you are concluding what you have already said/written. So try to build a connection of the dissertation conclusion section with other sections of the dissertation.
  • Let your argument stand for you. Be humble while writing the dissertation conclusion. Don’t try to impose your thoughts or findings on the user. Instead, use strong arguments. Your arguments are your weapons. Give such strong arguments that the reader gets convinced and should not leave with any other proposition.
  • Avoid grammatical errors in the dissertation. This might reduce the credibility of your dissertation. The dissertation conclusion section should be written in the “present perfect “tense.
  • Be vigilant with the use of the word “conclusion”. In the main dissertation, the body doesn’t use the word “conclusion” often, this will leave the impact that you are giving the arguments, results and concluding them simultaneously. This will lessen the impact of the separate dissertation conclusion section.

dissertation abstract:

a dissertation abstract is the short summary of the whole dissertation. It gives the reader an overview of the research, methodology, and objectives of the research. Very often the abstract of the dissertation gets confused with the “dissertation introduction” by the students. Just keep the nuance clear. A dissertation abstract is the short summary of all the headings of the dissertation, while the dissertation introduction is the more explanatory overview of the dissertation.

  Why it is important to write the dissertation abstract?

  • It is an extremely integral part of the dissertation as it is used for:
  • Selection Purposes
  • Indexing purposes
  • Submitting the dissertations for the conferences and journals
  • Sending applications for requesting monetary research grants.

Goals you have to achieve while writing the dissertation abstract:

Following are the goals you must keep in mind while writing the dissertation abstract:

  • It should be simple and brief.
  • It should be attention seeking.
  • It should give a descriptive overview of the literature review, problem statement, methodology, results, and findings.

How to write the dissertation abstract?

The abstract is the opening of the dissertation. The idiom “first impression is the last impression” is quite valid in this case. So if you have to qualify the first round it is quite justified to analyze and write the abstract critically.

The dissertation abstract includes the following parts:

It starts with an overview of background knowledge. You have to relate to the literature review. Obviously, you will start with the referencing to the problem statement. Although the literature review itself is extensive knowledge, you have to give a brief overview. This will help the reader to evaluate thoughts with the progress in the subject.

You can also elaborate on the significance of your “dissertation title”. This will create an impact on the reader. All you have to do is to elaborate that why you found the topic significant enough, to carry research on it.

Then come toward your “dissertation hypothesis”. It is integral to explain the initial hypothesis. After discussing the hypothesis refer to the methodology, give a brief review of your chosen methodology.

Then discuss the objectives, aims and hopes from your dissertation. This will help you later to compare them with the actual findings. Effective research comes up to the expectations, that the researcher initially had.

Then come towards the result and the findings of the research. Don’t go in much detail while writing the dissertation abstract. Keep it in mind that you are writing a short summary after all. Especially focus on the conclusion section. don’t elaborate on the results in the dissertation abstract, keep it brief so that you can state them later in the dissertation conclusion section.

Tips for writing the outstanding dissertation abstract:

  • Following are some tips for writing the effective dissertation abstract:
  • Write the dissertation abstract in the end. First, complete the rest of the dissertation. When you will be done shortlist the points from each section of the dissertation. Try to extract all the important points from each section. then make an outline of all these important points. From the outline make the first draft of the dissertation abstract.
  • Must consult the dissertation format given to you, the dissertation abstract may have different requirements depending upon the discipline. For instance, if you are carrying a scientific dissertation then discuss the methodology, result, and findings. However social sciences dissertation may require some additional parameters like the hypothesis, the supporting theories and conclusions derived on the basis of your argument.
  • As this is going to be the first part interacting with the reader so keep this in mind, and don’t rely on the first written abstract. Prepare the first copy by making sentences from the outline. Give it a unbias read and edit it for further detailing.
  • Avoid too much jargon in the dissertation abstract. Keep it simple for you. Use simple but descriptive language so that a layman can equally get assistance from your dissertation.
  • If any supervisor, company or researcher is interested in your dissertation, then obviously he will not be going to read the whole dissertation. The assessment will be based on the dissertation abstract. If he/she will find it useful or relevant only then he or she will go through your whole dissertation so, write the abstract in such an attractive way that it clears the first filtering round.

(Also in this section)

Dissertation Structure

Tips for Writing Dissertation Methodology

How to write dissertation bibliography

How to write a dissertation proposal?

Tips for creating the perfect dissertation title

How To Write A Dissertation

How long the dissertation should be?

how long the dissertation should be?

Up till this point you must be familiar with “all you need to know about the dissertation”. The first question that arises in the mind of the students is “how long the dissertation should be?” just the thought of the extensive work can give the students goose-bumps. In the first glimpse it is mostly intimidating for students. But that is perfectly alright, the size justifies the reason behind the intimidation. As soon as you get into the work, believe me it’s not as much as you are estimating. Rather if it is carried out with proper guidance and following the step-wise instructions, it would be a manageable task.

Means that stop worrying you can turn the roller coaster fearful ride into a pleasant journey. Now coming towards the main debate:

How long the dissertation should be?

So, there is no hard and fast rule to tell what should be the length of the dissertation. There is no fixed size where you can fit your dissertation. It varies a lot with the discipline you are enrolled and the extent of your research.

So what you can do with this situation?

The best answer you can find is the past dissertations of your department. You may also consult your co-supervisor, supervisor or the dissertation committee to seek a pattern of the dissertation. That will serve as the apt reference.

When you seek the reference from the old dissertations, specially focus on the dissertation approved or conducted under the supervisor of your supervisor. This will not only give you the reference about the length of each section but eventually it will give the idea regarding the general dissertation style.

So most you can produce out of it is that go to library’s dissertation section. Take 5 to 6 concerned dissertation samples and write the word length of each section corresponding to the section name. after viewing 5 to 6 samples you can calculate the average word length of each section.

However, in the succeeding section of the article we will have generic overview of the dissertation length.

You might be thinking that why is it important to remain restricted within the word limit?

All sort of scholastic writings requires the writer to write within the confined word limit given. This is necessary for quite a number of reasons. Brevity and descriptiveness are the two must haves of the academic writing and technical business writing. Students might wonder to assure brevity in the writings without compromising the descriptiveness of the content. They might confront problems in maintain the balance. This is a skill, which can be acquired by practicing only. You can understand this by the following analogy: if you want to increase the efficiency of the system then you might have to reduce the weight of your system. Same is the case with the writing, using a few words you can increase the efficiency and impact of your writing.

Furthermore, it is necessary to follow the word limit if you want to publish your dissertation in a conference. Publishing the dissertation requires it to be in a particular format. This format depends upon the conference you want to present your paper.

Initially when you will be asked to write the thesis with 15000 words or dissertation of approximately 8000 words, it will scare you and you will surely think what will you write? But as soon as you will start writing you will see the words will be consumed at a much faster pace.

The very first thing that you have to do is to section the dissertation according to the given format. Sectioning will reduce your task readily and will give you the crystal clear idea that in how many parts you are going to break your dissertation.

As previously stated there is no rule of thumb for the word limit.

how long the dissertation

Following is the close approximation of how long your dissertation should be:

section Maximum page limit
Introduction 15
Methodology 15
Literature review 25
Result 10
Discussion 20

The page limit is given, because it will give more vivid idea regarding the work you have to do in each section. getting familiarized with the word count helps in many ways. With the clear picture of limit, you can keep a track on the scope of your work, it will save you from over working on a particular section.

The page limit mentioned above is the general approximation of maximum pages you can have for each section. so if you find them way more than your content, then don’t lose the weight of your argument by dragging too much. Because it is the game of proving your stance not just the mere filling of the pages.

This is always a good approach to leave some room for additional content. This can be achieved by setting the word limit a little lesser than required, especially in the result and discussion section. the limit often falls short when you discuss your findings and relate it to the previous dissertations. So if you initially don’t leave some extra room in the discussion section you will might end up confronting a mess. Then you may have to compromise on writing some useful piece of information in the discussion section or you may have to revert back and trim other sections to produce some space. So stick to the Pro tip and always leave room for addition of extra content. This is might probable that you don’t find any need of addition, then filling up the space is far easier than restructuring the whole dissertation.

In each section of our dissertation you will have to discuss some:

  • Peripheral information
  • Core information

Initially you won’t be able to understand, but after writing the first draft of the dissertation you will also. reach to this result that the key is to spend the words where it is essential. Don’t waste too much time and words in discussing the peripheral information. Keep your focus on the core topic. Assign the lines or word limit for the peripheral information or format protocol of each section. focus more on the subject matter of your dissertation and use words in a better way for proving your argument. For instance, the dedication and acknowledgement section are the “format protocols”. Although, these section won’t help you to acquire grades but they ought to include in the dissertation. So keep a check on the words used in such sections.

Dissertations mostly require from the students to account all the possible options available for carrying out the methodology or for sampling the data, in addition to justifying their choice. So this is the major thing to keep a check on. This section could be “word eater”. Manage this section vigilantly. As you can’t skip any content because it might compromise the credibility of your dissertation paper. So briefly describe all the available methods for carrying out the research, for data acquisition and data analysis. Write but discuss what you find more justified and significant. Allocate more room for justifying your stance.

When students are writing their dissertation for the first time they might waffle a lot. Sections like the literature review want the students to be more critical and selective. So don’t bluntly write whatever you find. Critically analyze the literature review and discuss it critically. Be your own editor.

(Also in this section)

Dissertation Structure

Tips for Writing Dissertation Methodology

How to write dissertation bibliography

How to write a dissertation proposal?

Tips for creating the perfect dissertation title

How To Write A Dissertation

How To Write A Dissertation Top Tips

Have you reached the stage of your academic journey where you ought to How To write a dissertation? This means that you have successfully nailed the most part of the academic journey. Hold your patience! There is one last task “writing the dissertation”. By now your life would have been a roller coaster ride with many waxes and wanes in the progress, right? Writing a dissertation could be an extensive and burdensome work too but only and only if it is not carried out with prior proper management. So think of it as a last ride on the rollercoaster and ensure a safe end.

How to write a dissertation Top Tips step by step?

Could possibly the first thing that comes to the mind of the student while pondering on the dissertation, but there are a bunch of things lying overhead to be discussed first. Writing a dissertation can initially be intimidating for most of the students. However, it is not as much intimidating as it seems. You need to have a bit of dauntless and resolute.

If we breakdown the whole process of the writing the dissertation in a few simple steps, then it will probably look like this:

Writing a dissertation

However, every single stage has many sub-stages. We will discuss them later step by step.

Have you ever been involved in such an extensive project? Or writing such an extensive paper?

If it is NO, then also it is perfectly alright. This article is then surely meant for you.

Abandon these habits prior to writing the dissertation:

Before heading towards the dissertation writing you must figure out some nasty culprits which could be proved obstacles on your way to a successful dissertation. If you are afflicted by any one of these, then try to kill these culprits at first.

  • Lack of scheduling skills:

If you are a lotus-eater, then this job will definitely demand you to come out of your comfort zone. Such crucial jobs require a lot of time and a step-wise growth. Masterpieces aren’t one night’s creation. So, gear up, schedule your tasks with defined time limits. This will help you to beat mental peace. Thus, you will achieve your deadlines without any anxiety.

  • Lack of writing proficiency:

The thesis paper ought to pursue the strict principles of academic composition. You have to write inappropriate frame, style, and dialect; and you should try to execute the right reference rules.

  • Procrastination:

Students think there is a lot of time to take a shot at the project, and they continue postponing at the very beginning stage. This is a major issue since these students generally end up agitated when the due date approaches.

  • The scarcity of skills for carrying out effective research:

students who don’t have enough involvement with academic compositions beforehand think they simply need to gather a couple of concerned resources and they will extract important statements from them. That is a long way from reality. You have to scrutinize those materials completely and have to elaborate them in the paper thoroughly.

If you are able to take over these shortcomings, then you are on your way to write an impactful dissertation.

Following is the step-wise guide for acing the dissertation:

Step 1: selection of the dissertation topic:

This is the first and yet the most crucial thing of the whole dissertation. Actually this I going to decide the scope of the research. Most students get baffled when it is up to decide the topic so don’t just be impatient, deeply ruminate over all the possible aspects.

Seek assistance from Google or your library. You can also second the previously done dissertations on the same topic. Man university’s department also shares the dissertation topics with students. But whatever is the mode of selection just be vigilant in your choice.

Step 2: write a persuasive dissertation proposal:

Now the game has started officially, this will be the first written piece from your side that will be interacting with the committee members or supervisors. As it has to set the stage so it should be prepared worth credible to serve the purpose.

The competency of this stepping stone will give you the crystal clear idea regarding the credibility of your research. If you are successfully able to give an influential proposal, then mark it as a “head start” for you.

Following are some tips for producing a persuasive dissertation proposal:

  • Be observant on all the aspects of the research

When you come up with a topic analyze it from every aspect like the difficulty level, the extent of assistance you will be getting and the time span you will get to complete it.

  • Avoid anxiety:

Don’t panic, obviously at this initial stage you don’t know how things will turn out eventually. This stage is meant for proposing only so try to make it better. Enlighten your brain with a mug of coffee and suggest as best as you can.

Now heading towards:

How to write the dissertation proposal?

The dissertation proposal can be written in a variety of formats. The formats vary with the discipline you are enrolled in and the extent of your research.

Following is the general method for writing the dissertation proposal.

  • Introduction:

Start by introducing the topic of your dissertation. The introduction basically answers the question that why the researcher found the topic significant enough to carry on the research. Basically, the research statement and objectives are discussed mostly.

  • Objectives:

The next section is mostly occupied by the objectives and aims of the research. Generally, it again answers the why, how and what questions.

Why you find the topic significant to carry a dissertation on it?

How you are going to benefit society by your research?

What are you expecting from the research?

  • Literature review:

Science is not just the one-man show, it is built upon the other scientist’s theories and hypothesis. This is the key feature of dissertation researches too. So literature review is the section that encompasses all the researches carried out in the past on the topic same as yours.

Writing the literature review isn’t as simple as writing the reference along with the names of the authors. You have to critically review them, to extract the dissertation methodology schemes, the constraints in other researches and how you are going to modify or add to their dissertation.

  • Methodology:

In this section, you will be going to discuss the proposed methodology of your research. The data collection and analysis methods will also be proposed in this section.

  • Ethical considerations:

The student can embellish the proposal by discussing the ethical considerations of the project. Means that the student can discuss the ethical protocols for the subjects of the research.

  • Time span:

Some dissertation proposal demands that the time limit for each section of the dissertation should be mentioned in the proposal. This timeline for the event is actually a parameter used by the dissertation committee or the supervisor to keep a track on the student’s progress. wisely set the time for each section, allocate fairly reasonable time to each section.

Then afterward don’t procrastinate to meet the deadlines on time.

  • Limitations:

It is also a good approach to discuss all the constraints you expect in your research. By discussing this you will be defining the scope of the research. However, this isn’t necessary to add this section this time you can write it later in the actual dissertation too.

How To Write A Dissertation Tips

Now as you have submitted the proposal now it is the time for carrying out the research.

Step 3: now it is time for dissertation research:

So by now, the practical work has begun. Carrying out effective research is neither so easy nor so intimidating. Actually, it requires the proficient balancing of the time. It also depends upon the choice for data collection and data analysis.

Following are the steps:

  • Breakdown the whole process in little chunks and mention the deadlines along with them
  • For instance, if you are carrying out a scientific dissertation, then assign the time slots for making up the circuitry, for programming the code, taking the data from the subjects.
  • If the dissertation is for social sciences then you can break the research in the chunks like preparing questionnaire, interviews, gathering data, analysis of the data and deriving the conclusions.
  • Try to break into the baby steps so that you can have a small goal to achieve on the daily basis. This will keep your motivation level boosted.
  • Try to seek help from authentic sources whenever you stumble across a problem. Don’t waste your time and stuck your head with invalid sources.

The methodology section of the dissertation is actually the paraphrasing of the research you have done. This is no doubt the most important section of the whole dissertation. As the methodology section has its own protocol so we will discuss the writing of the dissertation methodology in this section. Writing the dissertation methodology requires time and careful concern. So by now, you must be pondering

How to write the dissertation methodology?

the methodology is a crucial part of the dissertation or thesis. But this shouldn’t imitate simply the methods applied. The methodology is a wider umbrella covering all the immense philosophical aspects of your chosen research strategies, including if the quantitative or qualitative techniques or a blend of both, have been used. Dissertation methodology also homes the data acquiring methods-primary or secondary-along with the justification of how you hit upon that idea and in which way you think it’s going to be beneficial. Data analysis techniques are also quoted in this section. Basically, this aims that if anyone who is going through the methodology section of your dissertation-has to propose a data acquiring design for the same problem statement, he/she will come up with a strategy much similar to yours. Thus, your dissertation’s methodology part should be descriptive and self-standing.

Methodology part should logically follow the problem statement you are addressing in much the same way as the research question follows the literature review. Generally, the methodology section houses:

  • Research Outline
  • Research Design
  • Data Collection
  • Data Analysis

Dissertation methodology section could have subtle nuances depending upon the “data” type that has been used.

Data could be:

  • Quantitative
  • Qualitative

Here is the detailed description of the dissertation’s methodology section:


If you are doing quantitative analysis, then the methodology section will consist of:

  • Subject
  • Instrument/apparatus
  • Procedures

In addition, the methodology section can have a “data analysis section”. Don’t go for irrelevant details just keep in mind that dissertation methodology is the set of instructions for carrying out the particular research.

How your dissertation methodology section should look like?

It’s quite reasonable to start with the introductory paragraph:


The aim of the introduction is to prepare the reader for what is following the next. Keep it simple. Try to answer the general questions like;

  • What is the overall methodological approach?
  • Is it qualitative or quantitative?
  • What data analyzing technique is employed?

The most challenging part of the introduction is writing the “statement” that is influential and descriptive both. The pro-tip is to use simple sentence or two which gives the naive reader a general idea of the research.

Sample description:

Sample or subject is the basic unit of analysis. The term subject is employed in a broader context it could be a single human, a document, an animal or a whole society. The subject section of methodology concentrates on the sources and the number of objects used in the research. For further elaboration, this section should answer the following question:

  • Which sampling procedure was used?
  • Is your sample random, stratified, purposive?
  • How much sample size is required for your research?


Give an overall description of the apparatus that has been used by you during your research. If you are using a well-known commonly used instrument, then discuss the validity and reliability of the apparatus’ measured values. Things will go differently if a student opts to make their own instrument or modify a previously existing to suit best to his/her needs.


The procedure is the exact detailed description of each of the step taken in carrying out the research. The details about the sample that have been discussed earlier in the sampling section need not be repeated here. Similarly, on the same grounds, the details about instruments should also be skipped here. However, the procedure by dint of which you approached your subject will be discussed in the dissertation’s methodology section. Instructions given to the subjects and the ethical considerations should be added in the “appendices”.

If you find your procedure complex and interconnecting from various aspects, then it is a way better to use tabulate the procedure or elaborate it with the help of flow chart. This not only will simplify your task but will also give visual appeal to your content.

Data analysis:

This section could be a nightmare for the students because it’s not the one-shot affair. This section includes the statistical test that is going to be used to assess the data in order to prove the hypothesis you have formulated. try not to transform your data analyzing a segment of your dissertation into a treatise on a specific method summarized from a typical statistical text; rather, present a short, contemplated statement that a specific method appears to be more proper.

It could be a plus-point:

If you add the delimitations and limitations of your research at the end of the dissertation’s methodology section. Delimitations are the restrictions in your research. For instance, if you are carrying out biomedical research and have acquired 20 EEG samples from males above 65 years of age, the delimitation of your research is male over 65 years of age with sampling size 20. Limitations are the constraints in your research over which you have no control.

Qualitative analysis:

If you have done your dissertation using qualitative analysis, then don’t take it as an opportunity to pass over the planning process in methodology. Issues of approaching subjects, choosing and assembling research materials and information gathering devices, and planning methodology relate here as in all investigations. The pursuer needs to comprehend what you did and how you contemplated it so as to build the connections among the research issue, the strategy, and the outcomes.


The subject section here is taken over by the “sampling”, as the qualitative researcher relies upon the theoretical sampling to increase the scope of data obtained and to unveil broader aspect of research.


The sole instrument used in qualitative research is the observation of the human being. So the reliability and validity section is omitted. The writer of the dissertation methodology has to pay significant emphasis on the training and practice of observer. Interviews can also be regarded as one of the instruments for qualitative dissertation methodology.

Data collection:

Data collection mode is overpowering than the data form in which it is acquired. The mode of acquiring data is assessed on two parameters fidelity and its structure. A paper base test has both a high structure and high fidelity.


Now it Is the time for writing the dissertation.

Step 4: write the dissertation:

Up till now, you must have written the rough drafts of the individual section you have done. So I will call this section more precisely as the “structuring the dissertation”. When you will reach this point of the dissertation you must be feeling much burden less.

The literature review will also have been assembled. The methodology part will be done; you must have acquired the results by implementing the data analysis tools. You will surely also have a vague idea about the conclusions drawn from your dissertation.

So relax because there is one crucial thing left. Have you guessed it? Yes, it is “writing and structuring the dissertation”. Obviously, this will be the single thing going to communicate to the reader on your behalf. So it should be credible enough to reflect the hard work you have done.

Grab a coffee mug to enlighten the mind because you have to brainstorm to come up with the best-structured dissertation. Bring the hidden editor in you to action.

The dissertation structure, like the dissertation proposal, can vary depending upon the genre and the extent of the research. However, any dissertation from any discipline has three integral parts namely the,

  1. Introduction
  2. Methodology
  3. Conclusion

However, there are many other dissertation protocols. Now coming up to answer the most awaited question:

How to writing a dissertation?

The general structure of the dissertation is:

  • Title page:

Most dissertations start with the title page having the name of the university, department, supervisor, dissertation title and submission date etc.

However, students can get assistance from the template given to them by the university or they can get assistance from the dissertation section in the library.

  • Preface:

This is exactly like other book’s preface. In the preface, you can introduce yourself and you can also mention your educational background.

  • Acknowledgment:

This section is meant for acknowledging the efforts of all the professors, organizations or the individuals which helped you in any way intellectually, morally or monetarily.

  • Abstract:

This is actually the short summary of the dissertation. This section has its own importance. Many students take it as a for granted task to write the dissertation abstract, but it ought not to be. For instance, if anyone has to evaluate your dissertation obviously he will not read the whole dissertation, he will simply read your abstract and will judge your dissertation on basis of it.

The abstract should cover the following questions.

What was the dissertation problem statement?

What you have done to solve the problem?

What results you have obtained?

What conclusions you can draw from your results?

  • Table of content:

Tabulate all the sections along with the references to the page numbers. This makes it easy for the reader to navigate within the dissertation. Mention all the headings and the subheadings in the content’s table.

  • List of figures and tables:

If you have used any figure in the dissertation to demonstrate methodology the enlist it in the list of figures. If any tables were made for the data acquiring and analysis, then they should also be mentioned in this list.

  • Introduction:

It is much the reflection of the abstract but it also mirrors the upcoming dissertation. It is widely accepted to do this section in the very end.

  • Literature review:

Give the reference to all the dissertations you sought help from. Discuss the constraints in previous researches and later you also have to discuss how your research is better than theirs.

  • Methodology:

Write the methodology according to the above-mentioned style in the research section.

  • Result:

Write the results you have acquired from your research. Remember that the result section is separate from the conclusion section. in this section, you have to write only the result that you have obtained from the data don’t discuss or extract inference.

  • Conclusion:

This section is meant for the discussion of the acquired results. Here the students not only have to discuss the results but also have to compare it with the other dissertation results discussed in the literature review. The students can also compare the conclusions with their expectations before carrying out the research.

  • Bibliography:

This is also one of the integral parts of the dissertation. The user has to give the reference of all the cited and non-cited items in the dissertation body. There are majorly three formats followed for composing the bibliography. Each has subtle nuances from the other. These are

  1. MLA style
  2. APA style
  3. Chicago citation style.
  • Appendices:

Often students find it hard to write all the descriptive information within the word limit provided then the appendices are actually the life savior tools. Students can elaborate the detailed information in the appendix if they find it little irrelevant within the body of the dissertation.

Congratulations! You are done with writing the dissertation. But wait for a second, are you thinking that it’s over now? Hold on! There is just a single step left.

Step 5: proofreading and acquiring feedback:

Proofreading thought only is tiring. Agree? Then give yourself a break. If you follow al the deadlines, then you can have plenty of time for doing all this stuff. As you finish writing your dissertation. Close it and give yourself a week-long break. Freshen up your mind.

When your mind gets refreshed it thinks in more versatile ways so after the break open your dissertation again and give it an unbiased reading. Note down all the points and areas where you find your dissertation lacking. Then make all the corrections accordingly. Then you will find your dissertation at a whole new professional level.

Actually, this is the best approach to not get satisfied on the first draft of the dissertation. Because you might have spent years or months on it so it must require a final touch and finishing to make all the dissertation look coherent.

When you are done with the proofreading show the dissertation to your supervisor or dissertation committee before presenting it on the defense day.

Good luck!

(Also in this section)

Dissertation Structure

Tips for Writing Dissertation Methodology

How to write dissertation bibliography

How to write a dissertation proposal?

Tips for creating the perfect dissertation title


Dissertation Structure | How to Structure a Dissertation

Dissertation structure varies a lot depending upon the research type and extent. It also varies with the institution’s requirement. This article will give you insight into the standard format of dissertation writing. The dissertation shouldn’t look like an essay but it should look somewhat like an academic book.

Methodology for structuring your dissertation:

Are you still ruminating on structuring your dissertation? The correct methodology for the task is: go get some dissertation samples from your library. This will give you an idea regarding the most credited dissertation structure in your university. You can also google the structure. Prepare the outline of the areas you are going to cover. This will divide your grandeur work into smaller chunks.

This article aims to provide a general outline for your dissertation along with the features you have to incorporate in each section.

structure a dissertation

dissertation structure

What your dissertation should have?

Substantive chapters that every dissertation should have are:

•    Introduction

•    Dissertation methodology

•    Conclusions

What else you want to incorporate to make your dissertation descriptive-is up to your choice or your course demand.

Following is the template for structuring the dissertation.

1.    Title page:

This is the eye-catcher part. It gives the reader the threshold idea of your research part. It should be succinate. Although your department will provide you with the pattern mostly the title page has:

•    The dissertation title

•    Your name

•    Discipline

•    Supervisor’s name

•    Date of submission

•    Some dissertation may have an extra “information page”.

2.    Preface:

The preface is the personal note from the author of the dissertation. In the preface, you can introduce yourself along with your educational background.

3.    Acknowledgment:

In the acknowledgment section, you can thank everyone who helped you in carrying out the research either intellectually or monetarily. You don’t have to add the details about those persons.

4.    Abstract:

The abstract is the overall summary of your research. This should be engaging because after reading the abstract the reader will decide is your dissertation helpful for him or not. The abstract should answer these questions

•    What was your problem statement?

•    What research you have done?

•    What are the results?

•    What conclusions can be drawn from these results?

5.    Table of content:

Table of content is the index where you add the headings and sub-headings along with the page number. This will assist anyone who is navigating through your dissertation to refer to the particular section.

6.    List of figures and tables:

Likewise, you can list down the figures and tables you have used for instance in elaborating the dissertation methodology. For your ease, if you use the “add caption” feature o word then you can generate a list of those. Some dissertation structuring methodologies add a list of abbreviation shortly after listing of tables. This homes all the abbreviation and keywords used throughout the dissertation. It’s up to your choice you can also add it at the end.

7.    Introduction:

The introduction is somewhat an explanation of the abstract and a signpost of the rest of the dissertation. A good approach is to leave this section until the completion of the research. When you will be done with your research, you will have more idea regarding how influentially you can introduce your dissertation.

8.    Literature review:

Methodologically this will probably the first section you will be going to cover practically. This section aims to reflect what present state of literature has to say regarding your problem statement. Means, how much work had been carried out in the concerned field. Indeed, this is a crucial part because it could reflect the originality of your work and a thorough understanding of previously done researches because on the basis of this section you are going to decide what are you negating, modifying or rebuilding previous researcher’s notion.

9.    Dissertation methodology:

This paraphrase all the subtle steps taken to carry out the research. The methodology section has philosophical aspects embedded. This covers all: the addressing to the problem statement, the approach used to do the research, the instrument used, the data collecting way you have chosen, in what ways you think that your method of choice is apt and lastly the data analyzing techniques. In a nutshell, you are going to answer all the “how” questions in your research. You can cover all these under separate headings or paragraphs. But all your writing seems to flow from the same idea means they must be coherent. You must follow the standard sample given by your department.

10.    Result:

A scientific dissertation has very distinguishable result and conclusion section. However, for a social science dissertation, you may find result and conclusion sections overlapping. Here they are often termed as “findings”. This section narrates how your research went and what results were obtained from your research without inferring anything from your result.

11.    Conclusion:

This section is meant for the discussion of your result. Here you provide a conclusive answer to your problem statement. You can also relate this section of the dissertation with the literature review and can point out the changes you inculcated in previous work. It is a good approach to highlight the constraints of your research and how these are going to affect validity. Thus, in short, you have to give “real-world” applications along with the implications of your research.

12.    Bibliography:

Here you jot all the sort of links from which you have taken any help. As bibliography is subjected to evolution so is the research. So, the practical approach is to edit this section every time you seek a reference. Before concluding the final draft of your dissertation make sure that every cited item in the context is written in the bibliography.

13.    Appendices:

Any document like map, flow-chart, diagram, questionnaire that assisted you in carrying out research but irrelevant from the dissertation methodology context could be added in the appendices section. This gives the reader a detailed explanation of how the research was carried out.

Tips for Writing Dissertation Methodology

Writing a dissertation with apt dissertation methodology could be a nightmare for some students especially if they are not eloquent writers. However; if you want to ace it this article is surely for your service.

        Nowadays, many degree programs require a dissertation from students. So your mind should be crystal-clear about the dissertation:

“Dissertation is the muniment submitted in support of scholastic degree or professional qualification introducing the creator’s exploration and findings.”

Dissertation vs thesis:

Many students confuse the dissertation with the thesis. The dissertation is often confused with the “THESIS” there is subtle nuance in between both thesis is commonly referred to the undergraduate and master degrees while the term dissertation is mostly referred to doctorate work.

Dissertation methodology

Dissertation Methodology is the step-wise approach pursued to explain subtleties that will help other people see precisely what you expected to do, how you approached it, and why you did it that way.

Many people find methodology a pain stacking job because the writer can easily be struck by boredom while writing this but before passing over it quickly, mind it that methodology section is the most crucial section of your dissertation as it contains the blueprints of your research. Tackle this arduous task with patience. In this section, you are going to elaborate on the methods chosen by you for carrying out your research.

Following are the top tips for writing a dissertation methodology:

  1. Seek guidance from previous researches:

This will give you the insight to other’s people approach to solve the same problem statement you are confronting. By dint of this, you will be able to shortlist the pros and cons of previous researches thus you can compare your dissertation pros to their cons, I order to strengthen your arguments.

  1. Flowchart and Draft your content regularly:

Make a flowchart of the approach you are going to follow. This will help you to create a mind-map of the headings you are going to cover and their contextual order. Drafting further makes the task easier. Jot down the key points you have to discuss under each heading.

  1. Refer to the problem statement in methodology:

Your methodology must be coherent to the problem statement you are addressing. Every argument, choice, and analysis should be discussed in the light of problem statement. This doesn’t mean that you have to discuss the problem statement every time. Your methodology should be sequential. Each section of your methodology should appear to be following the problem statement discussed before.

  1. Emphasize on validation of the chosen method:

 You should have to give strong altercations to support your research. As you have to convince the reader only by your writing. The pro-tip is that; the arguments should be so self-sufficient that leave reader with no other choice. If he/she has to propose a research methodology they will choose the same method as of yours. 

  1. Ensure reproducibility of methodology:

Reproducibility increases the credibility of your research paper. Replication of results is an integral prerequisite of the scientific method. Fulfilling this necessity turns out to be progressively mind-boggling when information from divergent sources is coordinated and reused. This can be time-consuming and scaring, particularly for individual analysts trying to transparently share their work.

  1. Ensure the reliability:

A parameter that should be on your checklist while reviewing the methodology section is the reliability of your research. In this section, you have a lot to discuss like the precision and accuracy of method or instrument used. Errors also fall under this umbrella. You can also mention the source of error in the research which would definitely assist the researcher which will be going to follow your research. The impact of the errors upon the statistical analysis is also discussed here.

  1. Keep it clear:

Two of the seven C’s of communication which is the plus point of your dissertation are:

  1. Clarity
  2. Brevity

Your writing should be clear so that the reader didn’t find any ambiguity in it. Writing clearly could be an arduous task. It needs the expertise to locate and fix the problem. Clear writing always requires a balance between frugality and verbosity.  Brevity is also the key feature because all the formal writings need to be descriptive but brief.

  1. Inculcate appendix for methodology:

Appending could be the cherry to your cake. By this way, you can say a lot by using a few words.  You can explain important but somehow less relevant points in context by appending them. If you have conducted behavioral science research, then the questionnaire used can also be added in the appendix. Thus any assistive tool used in research can find a home in the appendix.

  1. Discuss the ethical considerations:

Moreover; the demand of contemporary scientific and social researches is high moral gauges, seeking consent from all volunteers, assuring to keep their participation confidential if they want and guaranteeing that risk factors in research are limited. Such moral contemplation ought to be reported in your technique. 

These are the general approach to writing a dissertation methodology.  However; different discipline could demand some different features to be added or omitted in the methodology.

But ensure that building blocks of your methodology section should be:

  • The answer to the problem statement
  • Generic research approach
  • Data-gathering procedure
  • Analysis technique

The must-haves of your methodology section are:

  • Originality and relevance to the problem statement
  • Manageability with respect to the required word limit
  • Clarity and brevity

When you begin your research paper venture, you may have some wide ideas regarding the strategy you need to utilize. You’ll refine these thoughts in discussion with your advisor and embellish them further as you read about the past work that has been done in your field, and other researchers’ way to deal with your problem statement. In case you’re finishing a postgraduate exposition, you already have an expansive consciousness of the distinctive hypothetical positions and schools of thought in your field. In case you’re composing an undergrad exposition, this might just be the first occasion when you’ve been requested to draw in with such an expansive field of writing, and ordering this into particular methodologies and schools of thought may appear to be a staggering venture at first.

How to write dissertation bibliography

Most academic writings like a book, research report, a thesis or a dissertation require a bibliography section. If you are undergraduate this term might seem an alien to you. Writing a bibliography isn’t as intimidating as it seems.

What is bibliography?

For your understanding, you can think of bibliography section as same as a “reference list”. It lists all the books, articles, research papers or dissertations you have cited in your work.

Why do you need to write a bibliography?

It has following significance’s:

• It makes easy for the reader of your dissertation to track all the sources you took assistance from.

• It makes you free from the accusation of the copyright infringements and plagiarisms.

bibliography definition and examples


How to write a bibliography?

You can structure your bibliography according to any one of the three formats: APA, MLA, CMS. APA is a standard format for scientific papers.

How to start?

Check General methodology for structuring your dissertation. You can make a simple word document of the source along with the full title, authors, publishers, and place of publication.

 APA Format:

Start with the new page having a centered heading “references”.

Format is:

Author’s last name, first initial. (publication date). title. city of publication: publisher


Max, A. M., & Pexman. (1999). Presenting findings: A practical guide for tabulation.                                                                                                

Washington, DC: American Psychological Association

The format is valid for reference books.


Author’s name: start with the last name of the author followed by a comma. If first and second names are known then, only use capitalized initial alphabets separated by a period. If there are two authors, then the same format will be followed and both the author’s name will be separated by a comma and ampersand. If the source doesn’t’ t have a definite author, then start with the title source.

Publication dates: go with the month-day-year format. You have to abbreviate the month except for May, June, and July. Don’t forget to place a comma after day. Put the publication date in parenthesis, parenthesis should be followed by a period. If you are using multiple articles from the same author, then arrange them chronologically.

Title: the title of the source should be in italics.

Indentation: the first line of every point should be on the top left. Every following should be written after leaving a ½” space from the left.

Other sources:

Encyclopedia and dictionary:


Author’s last name, first initial. (Date). Title of Article. Title of Encyclopedia (Volume, pages). City of publication: Publishing company.


Pettingill, O. S., Jr. (1980). Falcon and Falconry. World book encyclopedia. (pp. 150-155). Chicago: World Book.

Newspaper and magazine article:


Author’s last name, first initial. (Publication date). Article title. The periodical title, volume number, pages include


Trillin, C. (1993, February 15). Culture shopping. New Yorker, pp. 48-51.

How to write a dissertation proposal?

A dissertation proposal is a scholastic paper that is typically composed to give pursuers data about your thesis. It lets the students, supervisors, and other individuals discover what your thesis will be about, what questions will be addressed, what is the hypothetical foundation for your paper, what techniques will be utilized for it, and how students and specialists will utilize the consequences of this research. The structure for composing a dissertation proposal may differ. It relies upon the extent of the research, the course, and another institutional criterion.

The dissertation proposal is a stepping stone towards writing your dissertation. Competency of your research proposal mirrors the credibility of your research. Your proposal should be novel and it should prepare the ground for your research and should enable you to make a reasonable arrangement for your dissertation and research.

Dissertation proposal, in fact, scrutinizes gradual progression towards your goal. it could serve as a table of content or check marks. If you are done with the descriptive proposal, then believe me it could be a “head-start”. It will give you directions about where to start the research. Your data collection sources would already be decided in the proposal. The only task left will be “getting-underway” -the practical implementation of the proposed dissertation.

Keep it in mind that every minor detail hasn’t to be written on the proposal as the subject of the research could possibly be slightly deviated during the course of your research. Its basic purpose is to give you a rough sketch of directions along with the affordable deadlines.


dissertation proposal example

Be vigilant in your decision:

Be prudent while deciding the proposal. Asses topic carefully from viewpoint of all parameters. It should lie in the domain of your field of study and it should encompass the core courses you have chosen. It should be narrow enough to be completed within the time limit you have been given with.

Put on a brave front:

Try not to panic that you are not totally sure of your hypothesis going to work. With the aid of your supervisor, you will have the ability to adjust the direction of your research as you will continue to work on it. In spite of the fact, at this point, you ought to have an idea of the potential of your research, and what conclusion will be drawn from it. Brainstorm, hit on an idea take a writing pad, sit on the chair and start writing the first draft of your dissertation proposal.

Major components of the proposal:

You can include a variety of key aspects in your proposal. There are a bunch of different samples over the internet but choose a pattern that suits your purpose well. Also, seek the help from advisor to come up with the proposal sample followed in your university. Just make sure that the main sections are covered like the introduction to your research, the problem statement you are going to address, the methodology for conducting the research, literature review and bibliography.  It is a way better if you explain some of the constraints of your methodology in proposal too.

  • Introduction:

Most of the proposal starts with the introduction. It should “backdrop” the background research of the topic for the readers. You also have to discuss the thesis statement, the questions your research will going to be answered, the objective of the research. Most influential proposal answers the question that why researcher found thesis statement significant enough to research over it.

  • Aims and objectives:

First, you will be going t highlight the problem statement and will answer the following questions respectively:

•    Why you are carrying out this research?

•    What benefits society can achieve from your research?

•    What are your expectations from this project?

  • Literature review:

This section includes listing all those papers or books you sought help from. It’s additionally a decent place to show how your research interface with past scholastic investigations, and how your techniques may contrast from or building upon those utilized by different researchers.

Because research is “cumulative” it’s not the one man’s show. It grows on the ideas, discoveries, and flaws of others. While it’s essential to give enough data about the materials to demonstrate that you have perused and comprehended them, keep in mind to incorporate how these researches helped you in your journey. It could be a plus point if you figure out some flaws in the previous researches and highlight an alternative in your dissertation proposal.

  • Methodology:

In this section, you are going to discuss the methods you are going to adapt to your research. The extent and constraints of the adopted method can also be discussed here. You also have to elaborate your data acquiring procedure whether it is qualitative or quantitative, primary or secondary. If you are going to use the primary method then the prepared questionnaire or interviews sample should be included. Depending upon the dimension of detail that your particular course requires, you may l need to clarify why your chosen ways to deal with data collection are more suitable than the previously held researches.

  • Ethical considerations:

One of the vital requirements of contemporary researches is the ethical considerations from the subject. So try to incorporate the ethical concerns. Ethical concerns include assuring the participation of subject, demonstrating the risk factors in the research and ensuring to keep subjects confidential.

  • Time limit:

frequently, dissertation proposal will incorporate an expected time span for the conveyance of work to their supervisor. This might be on a section-by-section premise, or you may start with the real research, so you are able to ace this part before proceeding onward to jot it.

  • Constraints:

If you don’t want to add limitations to your research in the methodology section, then you can incorporate all the constraints in a separate section. This will be scope determining the section of your paper. Many students skip this section and then eventually get trapped in a blind alley during their defense. So it’s better to take this precautionary measure.

Tips for creating the perfect dissertation title

The Dissertation title is the most crucial aspect I guess. This is the very first feature of your dissertation that is going to interact with the reader. So this is the right moment for setting the “first impression”.

Are you struggling with the dissertation title? So don’t panic. You are a part of the vast graduate world which eventually get perplexed when it comes to the selection of “dissertation title”. Stumbling on, at this point is justified in my viewpoint. Just a dissertation title itself alone demands a number of features. Being the central focus point, it has some right to make you ruminate over it.

The article solely concentrates on tips you should follow while writing your dissertation title and what are the must-haves of your title.

if you are a beginner it’s a way better to understand the general scheme of a dissertation. You can seek help from the article are you up to writing a dissertation? Because a good title is the reflection of the whole dissertation.

Students often regard dissertation title as the mind-consuming facet of the whole dissertation. You have already spent a year or more on your research so when you come at this point patiently select an apt title that should do “justice” to your hard work. Unfortunately, still in the 21st century there lies cognitive biasing toward the idiom “a book is judged by its cover”. Your title is just like product label. So the safe play would be some brain-storming over the title.

dissertation title examples and tips

Personality description:

You might find this heading a little a distracted from the mainstream. Actually the title you choose not only mirrors the dissertation but it also depicts the personality of the writer. The dissertation writing style tells the reader about your writing style but the aesthetics of your personality are unveiled by the title you choose.

Now coming towards the qualities your title should have:

Qualities of an influential dissertation title:

•    It should be concise

•    It should be descriptive in its context

•    It should be captivating

•    It should have some stand-out feature than the other dissertations of the same genre.

In short, it should answer

  • What?
  • Why?
  • How?

Of your research.

Tips for writing an influential dissertation title:

•    The apt title should mirror the whole dissertation features. Obviously the word limit is so small and you have to say a lot. The key features that should be present in the title are:

A.    A bit reference to the Problem statement you are addressing or at least the hypothesis on which your research is lying.

B.    The dissertation methodology you have chosen.

 “A quantitative analysis of study behaviors that can boost memory” can be an aptly written title.

Here you have given the idea to the reader that you have used “qualitative mode” of research.

C.    The data acquiring mode.

“analysis of the spirituality extent in the undergraduate students using primary data”

this title gives the idea to the reader that you have carried out research by using primary data sources. Not only it is descriptive but also it is somewhat professional rather using the phrases.

……by conducting interviews or filling questionnaires.

D.    You can also add the name of data analysis technique you have opted.

•    Keep your title brief and concise. Brevity is the key feature. You have to say a lot by just using 10 to 12 words at maximum. But you can’t afford to achieve brevity at the expense of descriptiveness. So a good title is balanced between verbosity and brevity.

•    Your dissertation title should be eye-catching. Attractiveness will be “jewel in the crown” for your dissertation. The databases and libraries have thousands of books and dissertations over a single topic. So, a reader seeking help for his subject will definitely go for the one with the captivating title.

•    Avoid jargon in the title. Keep it simple so that the layman can even find the title equally helping and understandable. The verbosity, jargon and the use of abbreviation can delimit the credibility of the title.

•    Avoid the use of abbreviations.

•     Don’t go for a “mysterious” sort of title. Your title should be contextual and well elaborative that the reader should aptly get the threshold idea about your dissertation.

•    Avoid any offensive words in the title. Don’t use any such title which is humiliating any social group. Try to use general facts rather than specifically targeting at a social community.

•    As previously stated that the article depicts the aesthetic sense but don’t indulge yourself in too much creativity that eventually end misleading your reader. Your dissertation title should be so descriptive that anyone confronting the same problem statement should eventually end up with your dissertation, upon searching.

•    The punctuation marks can be life saviors for you. Colon (:) for instance, is widely used by writers. If your dissertation has two different aspects, then the colon choice will be best for you. By the use of two phrases (depicting the two different facets) separated by a colon, you can conclude whole your dissertation.

Like in the title stated below:

“Islam and secularism: how university student can negotiate to avoid religious discrepancies at the campus.”

Where to get a start?

Although a good dissertation title only, will not help you to achieve a straight A+, but nevertheless it can help you to achieve a great impression. If you ruminate over the title for a day or two-only for the sake of your research for which you have burned your midnight oil- is worth time giving.

While thinking over the title, grab a cup of coffee for you and sit in a comfortable place answer all the what? How? And why? Of your dissertation. Jot down all the key-point you want to highlight. Make a title out of it. No matter how long it is, then start the omitting task. Try to replace the phrases with descriptive words. Make three to four titles. You can ask your classmates or even can get the guidance from your course convener or supervisor